Vagrantfile explained

Post’s pre-requisites:

You must understand each and every word in ‘vagrant up‘, otherwise the following text won’t make much sense to you.


A minimal Vagrantfile

Let’s start with a minimal Vagrantfile, which you’ll get on executing vagrant init hashicorp/precise64:

 

# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :# All Vagrant configuration is done below. The "2" in Vagrant.configure
# configures the configuration version (we support older styles for
# backwards compatibility). Please don't change it unless you know what
# you're doing.
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
# The most common configuration options are documented and commented below.
# For a complete reference, please see the online documentation at
# https://docs.vagrantup.com.# Every Vagrant development environment requires a box. You can search for
# boxes at https://atlas.hashicorp.com/search.
config.vm.box = "hashicorp/precise64"# Disable automatic box update checking. If you disable this, then
# boxes will only be checked for updates when the user runs
# `vagrant box outdated`. This is not recommended.
# config.vm.box_check_update = false# Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
# within the machine from a port on the host machine. In the example below,
# accessing "localhost:8080" will access port 80 on the guest machine.
# config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080# Create a private network, which allows host-only access to the machine
# using a specific IP.
# config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"# Create a public network, which generally matched to bridged network.
# Bridged networks make the machine appear as another physical device on
# your network.
# config.vm.network "public_network"# Share an additional folder to the guest VM. The first argument is
# the path on the host to the actual folder. The second argument is
# the path on the guest to mount the folder. And the optional third
# argument is a set of non-required options.
# config.vm.synced_folder "../data", "/vagrant_data"# Provider-specific configuration so you can fine-tune various
# backing providers for Vagrant. These expose provider-specific options.
# Example for VirtualBox:
#
# config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
# # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
# vb.gui = true
#
# # Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
# vb.memory = "1024"
# end
#
# View the documentation for the provider you are using for more
# information on available options.# Define a Vagrant Push strategy for pushing to Atlas. Other push strategies
# such as FTP and Heroku are also available. See the documentation at
# https://docs.vagrantup.com/v2/push/atlas.html for more information.
# config.push.define "atlas" do |push|
# push.app = "YOUR_ATLAS_USERNAME/YOUR_APPLICATION_NAME"
# end# Enable provisioning with a shell script. Additional provisioners such as
# Puppet, Chef, Ansible, Salt, and Docker are also available. Please see the
# documentation for more information about their specific syntax and use.
# config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
# apt-get update
# apt-get install -y apache2
# SHELL
end

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Vagrant: VirtualBox and GuestAdditions version

One last thing about Vagrant (setup and installation) I want to share with you guys is, syncing the VirtualBox and GuestAdditions versions. I hope you’re here after going through the previous Vagrant posts ‘Installing Vagrant on CentOS 7‘ and ‘Vagrant 101‘ – on setting up the first VM (i.e. precise64), when you executed the ‘vagrant up’ for the first time, you may end up getting the following warning message:

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The story behind ‘vagrant up’ – Vagrant 101

You’re a curios tech guy, who wants to test every new Linux package, or a tech blogger who has an impulsion to write a step-by-step guide for installation of a seemingly complex tool/software, or simply a developer who needs to test some new stack with all the operating system level dependencies, all you need is a lightweight, quickly up, portable development environment. The good news is we have Vagrant – a simple to use virtual machine management tool. With Vagrant setting up a fresh development sandbox is just a matter of few commands – at max 3 step process:
  1. Setup – download and install Vagrant – Installing Vagrant on CentOS 7.
  2. Configure – Create a single file i.e. ‘Vagrantfile’, to specify the specs for the virtual machine you want Vagrant to spawn, and run vagrant init <box-to-use>;
  3. Work – simply run ‘vagrant up‘, and a clean development environment will be there.

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Installing Vagrant on CentOS 7

Vagrant is virtual machine configuration and provisioning utility – uses VirtualBox, VMWare, KVM, etc for virualization and Puppet, Chef, Ansible, or shell scripts for provisioning.

Step 0 – Pre-requisites for Vagrant

The setup just requires VirtualBox to be installed – as Vagrant runs on top of a virtualization software. Here is a previous post – “Install VirtualBox 5.1 for CentOS 7/RHEL 7“. I am also listing the steps/commands here:
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/rpm/rhel/virtualbox.repo
# yum update -y
# yum -y install epel-release
# yum -y install gcc make patch  dkms qt libgomp
# yum -y install kernel-headers kernel-devel fontforge binutils glibc-headers glibc-devel
# yum -y install VirtualBox-5.1

Step 1 – Install Vagrant

You can download the Vagrant as per your platform – for this post we’ll be downloading it for CentOS 7. The latest available version is 1.8.6.
# wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/vagrant/1.8.6/vagrant_1.8.6_x86_64.rpm

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Install VirtualBox 5.1 for CentOS 7/RHEL 7

VirtualBox (aka Oracle VM VirtualBox) is an open-source “full virtualization” solution by Oracle Corporation. Basically it is a hypervisor, which makes it possible to install an unmodified OS on top of your existing host OS – these environments are generally termed as virtual machines or guest machines (the base machine the Host). Hypervisors i.e. VirtualBox provide a virtualization layer i.e. making it possible for the guest machines to access the abstracted hardware resources.

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